Exosomes / Nano-Particles
Exosomes are small bubbles released from cells that act as shuttles for genetic information, proteins, and messenger RNA’s to other cells. This usually happens in response to injuries.
Genetically speaking, exosomes carry and insert healthy and lost information into target cells.
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What you should know about exosomes
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(1) Extracellular Vesicles: Potential Roles in Regenerative Medicine Olivier G. De Jong, Bas W. M. Van Balkom, Raymond M. Schiffelers, Carlijn V. C. Bouten, Marianne C. Verhaar. Front Immunol. 2014; 5: 608.
(2) Effie Ioannidou, “Therapeutic Modulation of Growth Factors and Cytokines in Regenerative Medicine”, Current Pharmaceutical Design (2006) 12: 2397.
The history of exosomes / nano particals
Discovered 30 years ago, scientists describe exosomes as extracellular vesicles (EV’s) released from cells that play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication.
EV’s are involved in restoring tissue and organ damage and may explain Paracrine signaling, which is the ability of a cell to produce a signal to cause changes in nearby cells, changing the behavior of those cells.
EVs may also contain information useful in tissue engineering, cell recruitment, differentiation, and proliferation (1) and may explain the paracrine effects observed in stem cell-based therapeutic approaches.
EVs have a role in transferring proteins, mRNA, miRNA and other bioactive molecules between cells and regulating gene expression in recipient cells.
A complex network of growth factors affects cellular differentiation and regeneration in all organs and tissues.(2)
Growth factors are proteins that may act locally or systemically to affect cells’ growth in several ways. Various cell activities, including division, are influenced by growth factors.
While platelets are believed to contain 10 growth factors, exosomes may contain up to 300 growth factors.
Science has shown that these therapies may offer relief to millions of people who suffer various medical conditions worldwide.